The Security Council at its 7776th meeting on 23 September 2016 adopted Resolution 2310 (2016) urging all States that have either not signed or not ratified the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), to do so without further delay. The resolution also encouraged all State Signatories ‘to promote the universality and early entry into force of the Treaty’.
The calls were directed especially at the so-called “Annex 2” States, i.e. the States that must ratify the Treaty and deposit their instruments of ratification with the Secretary-General of the United Nations for the CTBT to enter into force. These 44 states are those that participated in the negotiation of the CTBT from 1994-1996 and that possessed nuclear power or research reactors at the time. There are eight Annex 2 States that have yet to ratify the Treaty: China, Egypt, Iran, Israel, and the United States of America, which have signed the Treaty, and North Korea, India, and Pakistan, which have not signed.