Bruegel 2

The Public International Law Advisory Group gathers experts, both academic and practitioners, in virtually all fields of public international law.

General International Law

Treaties, MoUs, other international instruments

  • Treaty drafting and negotiation
  • Treaty conclusion and entry into force
  • Treaty interpretation and application; amendment and modification
  • Invalidity, termination and suspension of treaties
  • Issues of compliance and non-compliance with treaties
  • Depositaries, notification and registration of treaties

International custom

Unilateral acts of States and their legal and practical impacts


State territory, land and maritime boundaries, airspace, territorial sea

State sovereignty and jurisdiction

State succession and its effects on treaties and international obligations, properties and debts

Recognition, non-recognition, de-recognition of States and governments

Legal status and dealings of un-recognized States and entities

International Organizations

Privileges and immunities of international organizations

Agreements between States and international organizations

Accountability of international organizations

Non-State Actors and Individuals

Status and rights and obligations of belligerents, insurgents under international law

Status of aliens, stateless persons, refugees

Protection of human rights; obligations under human rights treaties; UN and other procedures of supervision of human rights

International Dispute Settlement

Conditions and contents of international responsibility (States and international organizations)

Countermeasures against States and international organizations

Negotiation, mediation of international disputes

International courts and tribunals

  • The International Court of Justice (ICJ)
  • The International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (ITLOS)
  • The Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA)
  • Ad hoc arbitration
  • WTO dispute settlement organs
  • The United Nations Compensation Commission (UNCC)

Law of the Sea

Maritime zones; regime of the high seas

Delimitation of maritime boundaries; activities in disputed maritime areas

Navigation; regime of international straits and canals

Regime of land-locked seas

Maritime security; piracy

Airspace, Outer Space

Sovereignty over airspace

International regulation of civil aviation

Activities in outer space

Armed conflict

International and non-international armed conflict

International humanitarian law

Belligerent occupation

Sanctions for breaches of international humanitarian law; war crimes

Neutrality and non-belligerence

Arms control, disarmament, nonproliferation

Arms control agreements, verification obligations, compliance

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards

International legal issues raised by missile defence projects

Economic sanctions, embargoes and non-forcible coercion

Regime and legal consequences of UN Security Council sanctions

Effects of coercive measures on international investment and trade relations

Limits of, and preconditions for, unilateral sanctions

Interaction with WTO rights and obligations

Treaty protection against unilateral sanctions

Judicial and other remedies for affected States or private parties

International Investment Law

Challenges of negotiation of bilateral and multilateral investment treaties

The Energy Charter Treaty (ECT) ; arbitration under the ECT

The ICSID Convention

Evaluation and structuring of treaty protections for international investments